The Manic Episode

Criteria for Manic Episode according to American Psychiatric Association DSM-IV:

Five (or more) of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms is either;

  • A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive or irritable mood, lasting for at least one week (or any duration if hospitalization is necessary).
  • During the period of mood disturbance, three (or more) of the following symptoms have persisted (four if the mood is only irritable) and have been present to a significant degree:
    • inflated self-esteem or grandiosity
    • decreased need for sleep (e.g., feels rested after only 3 hours of sleep)
    • more talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking
    • flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing
    • distractibility (i.e., attention is easily drawn to unimportant or irrelevant external stimuli)
    • increase in goal-directed activity (either socially, at work or school, or sexually) or psychomotor agitation
    • excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences (e.g., engaging in unrestrained buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, or foolish business investments)
  • The symptoms do not meet criteria for a Mixed Episode
  • The mood disturbance is sufficiently severe to cause marked impairement in occupational functioning or in usual social activities or relationships with others, or to necessitate hospitalization to prevent harm to self or others, or there are psychotic features.
  • The symptoms are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication, or other treatment) or a general medical condition (e.g., hyperthyroidism).

Note: Manic-like episodes that are clearly caused by somatic antidepressant treatment (e.g., medication, electroconvulsive therapy, light therapy) should not count toward a diagnosis of Bipolar I Disorder.